North Street

Cromford, Derbyshire


North Street is the earliest piece of planned industrial housing in the world. Surrounded by countryside, it is at the heart of a designated World Heritage Site. Cromford is an excellent little town, and the area is full of interest for those absorbed by industrial archaeology. You can also enjoy a visit to nearby Bolsover, Hardwick Hall and Chatsworth.

  • CotCot
  • Mobile signalMobile signal
  • Fire or StoveFire or Stove
  • Open SpaceOpen Space
  • Parking AvailableParking Available
  • Bath with ShowerBath with Shower

Beds 1 Twin, 1 Double

4 nights from
£292 equivalent to £18.25 per person, per night

A simple terrace, but an important piece of history

This is one of Landmark’s quiet gems. North Street is the earliest planned industrial housing in the world and the finest of its type ever built – vastly superior to that of the next century. Named after the then Prime Minister, the terrace was built in 1771 by Richard Arkwright to house the workers from his pioneering  water-powered cotton mill. Today, Cromford is part of the Derwent Valley Mills World Heritage Site.

We repaired one house with a particularly well-preserved interior as a Landmark so that people can experience and reflect upon the living quarters of these earliest of factory workers. Their lot was perhaps less harsh than that of later workers, but you may still find yourself touched and inspired.

The three-storey gritstone houses have one room on each floor, with a room for framework-knitting in the attic. Steep stairs run from the sitting room with its open fire, to the upper bedrooms. Each house was provided with a small garden and an allotment at a distance.

‘The house is better than my wildest dreams; one suggestion - how about a fireman’s pole instead of the stairs?’

From the logbook

Floor Plans


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Map & local info

North Street lies on the southern edge of the  Peak District National Park  in the village of Cromford, which is famed for its former water-powered cotton spinning mill. Follow one of the many planned walks to explore the village itself and the surrounding area.

Step back in time at the nearby Crich Tramway Village which offers a fun day out for all, with its recreated period street, the National Tramway Museum and lots of other interesting things to do and see. 

The delightful market town of Bakewell, in the heart of the Peak District National Park, is less than half an hour by car from Cromford. Here, you can sample the delicious, local speciality of Bakewell Pudding. The wonderful stately homes of Chatsworth House and Haddon Hall are both just a short drive from Bakewell, too.

Close by is the wonderful Chatsworth House (10.7 miles). For more information on things to do during your stay at North Street, please see our Pinterest page. 

Please Note: The Landmark Trust does not take any responsibility and makes no warranties, representations or undertakings about the content of any website accessed by hypertext link. Links should not be taken as an endorsement of any kind. The Landmark Trust has no control over the availability of the linked pages.

Clear directions
Essential info
What you need to know about this building
  • No.
  • From the main road.
  • Cromford – 0.75miles.
  • No, however there is plenty of on-street parking.
  • There is gas central heating and an open fire.
  • Unfortunately, there is currently no arrangement for the purchase and delivery of fuel.  The fire basket, in the range at North Street,  is small and is only suitable for burning coal and kindling; larger logs will cause damage to the appliance. Kindling and smaller grade coal can be bought from Arkwright Stores in Cromford and is also available from the Co-op petrol station on Cromford Road, Wirksworth, 2-miles away.
  • To check up-to-date mobile network coverage in the area, visit Due to the location and structure of many of our buildings, signal strength may differ to those indicated.
  • The kitchen is fully equipped with all plates, cutlery, fridge etc. There is also a gas cooker.
  • There is one bathroom with a bath.
  • Yes, the stairs are steep and narrow.
  • There is a small garden / yard (not enclosed).
Booking and Payment
  • If the weather is bad, please contact our booking office who will be able to tell you whether the Landmark is accessible. If the housekeeper can safely get to the building to prepare it then we consider that it is open and available for guests. However if we cannot undertake a changeover then we will do our utmost to transfer your stay to another Landmark, depending on what we have available. It may not be of a similar size or in the same part of the country as your original booking. If the building is accessible but the customer cannot travel due to poor weather in his/her local area then please be aware that Landmark will not provide a refund. However the customer may be able to claim on his/her own travel insurance. We recommend that all guests take out travel insurance when they first secure a booking.
  • We accept Maestro (if issued in the UK), Visa, MasterCard, direct transfer and sterling cheques drawn on a UK bank. Cheques should be made payable to the Landmark Trust except for Lundy stays and boat/helicopter tickets which should be payable to The Lundy Company Ltd. All payments must be in sterling.
  • The key arrangements will be included in the Further Infomation document which will be sent to you prior to your stay.
  • If your stay starts more than two months from the date you make the booking, you are required to pay a deposit of one third of the cost of your stay (or £100 per booking, if greater) at the time of booking. Camping on Lundy and The Bunk House at Llwyn Celyn must be paid for in full at the time of booking.
  • If you wish to cancel or change your booking, please contact our Booking Office on 01628 825925
  • At the moment we only accept payment in sterling.
  • Our housekeeper will leave the key in a suitable place, the details of which will be sent to you prior to your stay.
  • It depends. Some of our most popular Landmarks are booked up a long time in advance, but many can be booked at short notice. We will always have Landmarks free for the coming weekend so it’s always worth checking our availability list.
  • No, Landmarks are available to be booked for anyone.
  • No, all the information you need can be found on our website, although we’d like you to buy one anyway as it will be a pleasure to own!
Staying at a Landmark
  • Some of our Landmarks are suitable for people with disabilities or limited mobility. However, many Landmarks have steep or narrow staircases, uneven floors and thresholds, changes of level, low ceilings or beams, as well as indistinct colours on steps and in corridors. We recommend that you call Booking Enquiries on 01628 825925 if you would like to find out the suitability of a particular Landmark for anyone with a specific disability.  Further information on access when visiting Lundy can also be found here.
  • Yes, Landmarks are only available as self-catering accommodation. We do not offer bed and breakfast.
  • Landmark does not provide catering, but we can recommend Greycoat Lumleys who can arrange for expert and well-trained staff to cater for one evening or for your entire holiday. Their cooks and chefs are able to work with you to meet your specific requirements
  • You may bring up to two dogs to properties where dogs are allowed (please see specific property details for exemptions however dogs are not permitted on Lundy except assistance dogs). They must be kept off the furniture and under proper control. A charge of £20 per stay is made for each dog. Please contact booking enquiries if a registered assistance dog is supporting one of the guests, for which there is no charge.
  • Apart from two dogs (see above) no other pets are permitted.
  • Arrival is from 4pm and departure is by 10am.
  • We do not carry insurance for breakages. However we appreciate that accidents do sometimes happen. If you have a breakage during your stay, please let the housekeeper know and if appropriate we reserve the right to invoice you accordingly.
  • Yes, most of our Landmarks are perfect for children, with gardens to play in and secret places to discover. Our furniture is surprisingly robust and we positively encourage families to stay. However, some of our buildings may not be suitable for small children; for example, some of them have steep or uneven spiral staircases. We recommend that you call the Booking Enquiries team if you would like to find out the suitability of any of our Landmarks for young children.
  • Unfortunately, most of our Landmarks are not licensed for weddings. However, you may get married on Lundy.
  • All our larger Landmarks are perfect for gatherings of family or friends. You may invite an additional two guests to visit you during your stay, however they must not stay overnight. This is very important because our fire regulations specifically note the maximum number of people in any one building. In addition our properties are prepared, furnished and equipped for the number of people specified and greater numbers cause damage and excessive wear and tear to vulnerable buildings. Should this condition be ignored we shall make a retrospective charge per person per day (whether or not they stay overnight) for each guest over the permitted limit, the charge being pro-rated on the total cost of your booking.
  • We deliberately do not provide televisions and find that most people appreciate this.
  • One of the challenges of restoring unloved buildings is gaining access to them. We frequently have to negotiate rights with our neighbours and share tracks with them. In many cases tracks do not belong to us and we have no right to maintain them. Wherever possible we work with our neighbours to provide you with a good quality surface, but where this is a problem then you will be warned at the time of booking.
  • Yes, we have standard electricity sockets for UK appliances. If you are coming from outside the UK, you will need to bring your own adaptor plug(s). If you are visiting one of our European properties we have standard European electricity sockets. If you are visiting from the UK, you will need to bring your own adapter plug (s).
  • Landmark’s electrical systems have not been designed to provide continuous power from one socket over several hours.  If an ordinary socket is used to charge an electric vehicle, there is significant risk of an electrical fire and consequent danger to life.  Therefore, we are unable to allow electric vehicle charging from most of our Landmarks at present.

    We are working to provide Type 2 Electric Vehicle charge points at our properties where there is private parking.  Where this is available, please request this facility when booking the property to ensure the outlet is enabled on your arrival.  There is a small charge to cover the cost of electricity provided.  Please book this facility in advance.
  • No, we do not allow smoking in any Landmark.
  • Sometimes our kitchens and bathrooms have to be imaginatively fitted into the available space in buildings where before there were none, but they are all planned and equipped to a high and modern standard.
  • Yes, Landmarks are fully equipped with sheets and towels. All the beds are fully made up for your arrival. Except for the Llwyn Celyn Bunkhouse.
  • Yes, our kitchens are well equipped with cookers and fridges. There are freezers and dishwashers (in larger buildings) and, where space allows, microwaves as well as a wide and standard range of utensils. A full equipment list is available at time of booking.
  • Logs are provided at many of our Landmarks for an additional cost.
  • Mobile coverage varies. Some Landmarks have an excellent signal, but others have none at all. If you are concerned, you can check with the housekeeper before your arrival.
  • No. At the moment, we have decided not to implement Wi-Fi in our buildings following a consultation with our customers. Many said that they would find it useful, but many also felt that it would somehow damage the experience of staying in a Landmark. As the responses were so split, and as we have so many other initiatives requiring funding, we have decided to put this on hold for the time being.
    Except at Llwyn Celyn Bunk House where a password is available in the property when you arrive.
  • A welcome tray with tea and sugar awaits your arrival and you will find a pint of milk in the fridge. We also provide toilet rolls and a bar of soap per basin, but no other toiletries. Hairdryers are provided.

A crucial role

The late 18th century saw a period of rapid technological advance and expansion in Britain that later spread worldwide and it represented the beginnings of modern industrial society. Cromford, then a tiny hamlet in an isolated valley, was to play a crucial role in that development and has helped earn the Derwent Valley its reputation of 'the cradle of the industrial revolution' and World Heritage site status.

In 1770, Richard Arkwright signed a lease on land in Cromford to erect a cotton spinning mill. Arkwright came from humble origins and was a barber and wigmaker by trade. There was a fervour of invention at the time, and one of the chief quests was the need for a successful automated spinning machine. Arkwright teamed up with a clockmaker called John Kaye and his partner Thomas Hayes to perfect a model of the spinning machine, based on pairs of rollers rotating at different speeds. Arkwright patented the design of his spinning frame (later also known as the water frame) in 1769 and also took the crucial decision that the new spinning frame was to be licensed for use only in units of a thousand, which meant that it became factory-based technology (unlike the earlier but less efficient Spinning Jenny, which remained cottage-based). Such large machines also required external power to drive them; after a brief experiment with horsepower in Nottingham, Arkwright moved to Cromford.

Arkwright built his first mill in 1771, using waterpower from Bonsall Brook and the Cromford Sough (a drain from the lead mines in the hills above). He found his labour force partly from the miners' families, partly through advertising in the local papers. Those who moved to Cromford had to be housed, and it was for this purpose that North Street was built. Arkwright specifically advertised for large families and the thirty houses on North Street would have housed much of his initial workforce. They represent one of the earliest examples of the terraced industrial housing that was to become so characteristic of industrial towns over the next century. Unlike later versions, North Street was built to a high standard, with attention to details like sash windows and almost classical door frames which would have impressed those used to the poorer quality housing of the day. The upper floors still have their original, long windows, a sign that the occupants were expected to supplement their income by spinning or knitting. Typically, it was the women and children who were employed at the mill, tending the machines and joining broken threads. The men would be employed for building, for machine-making or mending, as mill supervisors or at home on their loom or knitting frame. At No 10 North Street, filled-in blocks in the floor of the attic room suggest that frame knitting was carried out here, the vigour of the operation of the knitting head requiring such a machine to be stabilised by fixing it to the floor (unlike a hand loom).

Arkwright became immensely wealthy and his development of the mills and community at Cromford was a model followed all over the world. Before his death in 1792, he started to build Willersley Castle on the Tor overlooking the mill site and St. Mary's Church. The mills in Cromford declined through the 19th century as steam power took over from water, and the cotton industry gradually migrated to Lancashire. Cromford was left much as Arkwright had built it. In 1979 the Arkwright Society acquired the former mill site from Burrells Paints and have been restoring it ever since in partnership with English Heritage.

A short history of North Street

Read the full history album for North Street

Download a copy of the children's Explorer pack for North Street


In Arkwright family ownership until 1924

Today, the Landmark Trust owns Numbers 4,5,6,8, 10 and 11. All except Number 10 are let to private tenants. The street had remained in the ownership of the Arkwright family until 1924 when the houses were sold to individual owners. In 1961, Matlock Urban District Council bought Numbers 4-9 with the intention of demolishing them and building an old people's home on the site. Derbyshire County Council intervened with a Preservation Order.

In 1965, the Ancient Monuments Society agreed to buy them from the Council for £400. All had existing tenants and the houses were badly in need of repair and modernisation, specifically provision for bathrooms and toilets. The Society lacked the capital to initiate such improvements and the resources to act as landlord. The National Trust was approached initially, but was only interested in managing the whole street. The Society then approached John Smith, founder of the Landmark Trust in 1965 and also an honorary member of the Society of Ancient Monuments. Landmark agreed to acquire the properties.

Coincidentally, Landmark had also been approached about Numbers 10-11 at the other end of the street. Numbers 4, 5, 6 and 8 were acquired in April1974 and numbers 10-11 soon followed. The appearance of North Street was considerably less uniform than it is now. Doors were of different styles and colours and most of the long second floor windows were partially blocked. With the help of grants from the Historic Buildings Council and the District Council greater uniformity began to be established, a process still continuing. Roofs were stripped and re-laid, and electric cables removed from the front of the houses. Wherever possible, the four-light windows on the second floor were reinstated.

When Landmark bought Number 10, it had been encroached upon considerably by Number 11. It had only a tiny kitchen in an additional lean-to against the main extension at the rear, entered through a door where the rear-facing window in the living room is today. This meant most of today's kitchen and bathroom had become part of Number 11. We demolished this little kitchen lean-to and inserted a new window in place of the door. The area within the main lean-to at the back was rearranged with Number 11, to allow for today's kitchen and a ground floor bathroom behind (a small bathroom on the second floor room was removed). A new pantry was built, and the floor level in the lean-to was lowered on the ground floor. This meant losing the earlier (cramped) first floor in the lean-to and filling in the cellar windows, although the window surrounds were retained. The cramped 18th-century staircase design did not comply with today’s building regulations and so the current steep flight was inserted to be as economical with space as possible, while still meeting requirements. The resulting layout is much closer to that which would have been found in Arkwright's day – a one room deep dwelling, although now with provision for today's necessities: an inside loo and bathroom and a sensibly sized, separate kitchen.

Availability & booking

Select a changeover day to start your booking...

What's a changeover day? and Why can't I select other dates?Explain MoreQuestion

A changeover day is a particular day of the week when holidays start and end at our properties. These tend to be on a Friday or a Monday but can sometimes vary. All stays run from one changeover day until another changeover day.